In computing, DLL Hell is a term for the complications which arise when one works with dynamic-link library (DLLs) used with Microsoft Windows operating systems, particularly legacy 16-bit versions, which all work in a individual memory space. DLL Hell can manifest itself in many different ways wherein applications neither launch nor work correctly.
# A complete working Python program to demonstrate all # stack operations using a doubly linked list class Node: def __init__(self, data): self.data = data # Assign data self.next = None # Initialize next as null self.prev = None # Initialize prev as null class Stack: """ >>> stack = Stack() >>> stack.is_empty() True >>> stack.print_stack() stack elements are: >>> for i in range(4): ... stack.push(i) ... >>> stack.is_empty() False >>> stack.print_stack() stack elements are: 3->2->1->0-> >>> stack.top() 3 >>> len(stack) 4 >>> stack.pop() 3 >>> stack.print_stack() stack elements are: 2->1->0-> """ def __init__(self): self.head = None def push(self, data): """add a Node to the stack""" if self.head is None: self.head = Node(data) else: new_node = Node(data) self.head.prev = new_node new_node.next = self.head new_node.prev = None self.head = new_node def pop(self): """pop the top element off the stack""" if self.head is None: return None else: temp = self.head.data self.head = self.head.next self.head.prev = None return temp def top(self): """return the top element of the stack""" return self.head.data def __len__(self): temp = self.head count = 0 while temp is not None: count += 1 temp = temp.next return count def is_empty(self): return self.head is None def print_stack(self): print("stack elements are:") temp = self.head while temp is not None: print(temp.data, end="->") temp = temp.next # Code execution starts here if __name__ == "__main__": # Start with the empty stack stack = Stack() # Insert 4 at the beginning. So stack becomes 4->None print("Stack operations using Doubly LinkedList") stack.push(4) # Insert 5 at the beginning. So stack becomes 4->5->None stack.push(5) # Insert 6 at the beginning. So stack becomes 4->5->6->None stack.push(6) # Insert 7 at the beginning. So stack becomes 4->5->6->7->None stack.push(7) # Print the stack stack.print_stack() # Print the top element print("\nTop element is ", stack.top()) # Print the stack size print("Size of the stack is ", len(stack)) # pop the top element stack.pop() # pop the top element stack.pop() # two elements have now been popped off stack.print_stack() # Print True if the stack is empty else False print("\nstack is empty:", stack.is_empty())