In regression analysis, logistic regression (or logit regression) is estimate the parameters of a logistic model (a form of binary regression).Outputs with more than two values are modelled by polynomial logistic regression and, if the multiple category are ordered, by ordinal logistic regression (for example the proportional odds ordinal logistic model). However, the development of the logistic model as a general option to the probit model was chiefly due to the work of Joseph Berkson over many tens, beginning in Berkson (1944), where he coined" logit", by analogy with" probit", and continuing through Berkson (1951) and following years. The probit model was chiefly used in bioassay, and had been preceded by earlier work dating to 1860; see Probit model § history. The logistic function was developed as a model of population increase and named" logistic" by Pierre François Verhulst in the 1830s and 1840s.

COMING SOON!

```
#!/usr/bin/python
# Logistic Regression from scratch
# In[62]:
# In[63]:
# importing all the required libraries
"""
Implementing logistic regression for classification problem
Helpful resources:
Coursera ML course
https://medium.com/@martinpella/logistic-regression-from-scratch-in-python-124c5636b8ac
"""
import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
# get_ipython().run_line_magic('matplotlib', 'inline')
from sklearn import datasets
# In[67]:
# sigmoid function or logistic function is used as a hypothesis function in
# classification problems
def sigmoid_function(z):
return 1 / (1 + np.exp(-z))
def cost_function(h, y):
return (-y * np.log(h) - (1 - y) * np.log(1 - h)).mean()
def log_likelihood(X, Y, weights):
scores = np.dot(X, weights)
return np.sum(Y * scores - np.log(1 + np.exp(scores)))
# here alpha is the learning rate, X is the feature matrix,y is the target matrix
def logistic_reg(alpha, X, y, max_iterations=70000):
theta = np.zeros(X.shape[1])
for iterations in range(max_iterations):
z = np.dot(X, theta)
h = sigmoid_function(z)
gradient = np.dot(X.T, h - y) / y.size
theta = theta - alpha * gradient # updating the weights
z = np.dot(X, theta)
h = sigmoid_function(z)
J = cost_function(h, y)
if iterations % 100 == 0:
print(f"loss: {J} \t") # printing the loss after every 100 iterations
return theta
# In[68]:
if __name__ == "__main__":
iris = datasets.load_iris()
X = iris.data[:, :2]
y = (iris.target != 0) * 1
alpha = 0.1
theta = logistic_reg(alpha, X, y, max_iterations=70000)
print("theta: ", theta) # printing the theta i.e our weights vector
def predict_prob(X):
return sigmoid_function(
np.dot(X, theta)
) # predicting the value of probability from the logistic regression algorithm
plt.figure(figsize=(10, 6))
plt.scatter(X[y == 0][:, 0], X[y == 0][:, 1], color="b", label="0")
plt.scatter(X[y == 1][:, 0], X[y == 1][:, 1], color="r", label="1")
(x1_min, x1_max) = (X[:, 0].min(), X[:, 0].max())
(x2_min, x2_max) = (X[:, 1].min(), X[:, 1].max())
(xx1, xx2) = np.meshgrid(np.linspace(x1_min, x1_max), np.linspace(x2_min, x2_max))
grid = np.c_[xx1.ravel(), xx2.ravel()]
probs = predict_prob(grid).reshape(xx1.shape)
plt.contour(xx1, xx2, probs, [0.5], linewidths=1, colors="black")
plt.legend()
plt.show()
```