local (neighborhood) searches take a potential solution to a problem and check its immediate neighbors (that is, solutions that are like except for very few minor details) in the hope of finding an improved solution. Tabu search, created by Fred W. Glover in 1986 and formalized in 1989, is a metaheuristic search method utilizing local search methods used for mathematical optimization.

COMING SOON!

```
"""
This is pure Python implementation of Tabu search algorithm for a Travelling Salesman Problem, that the distances
between the cities are symmetric (the distance between city 'a' and city 'b' is the same between city 'b' and city 'a').
The TSP can be represented into a graph. The cities are represented by nodes and the distance between them is
represented by the weight of the ark between the nodes.
The .txt file with the graph has the form:
node1 node2 distance_between_node1_and_node2
node1 node3 distance_between_node1_and_node3
...
Be careful node1, node2 and the distance between them, must exist only once. This means in the .txt file
should not exist:
node1 node2 distance_between_node1_and_node2
node2 node1 distance_between_node2_and_node1
For pytests run following command:
pytest
For manual testing run:
python tabu_search.py -f your_file_name.txt -number_of_iterations_of_tabu_search -s size_of_tabu_search
e.g. python tabu_search.py -f tabudata2.txt -i 4 -s 3
"""
import copy
import argparse
def generate_neighbours(path):
"""
Pure implementation of generating a dictionary of neighbors and the cost with each
neighbor, given a path file that includes a graph.
:param path: The path to the .txt file that includes the graph (e.g.tabudata2.txt)
:return dict_of_neighbours: Dictionary with key each node and value a list of lists with the neighbors of the node
and the cost (distance) for each neighbor.
Example of dict_of_neighbours:
>>) dict_of_neighbours[a]
[[b,20],[c,18],[d,22],[e,26]]
This indicates the neighbors of node (city) 'a', which has neighbor the node 'b' with distance 20,
the node 'c' with distance 18, the node 'd' with distance 22 and the node 'e' with distance 26.
"""
dict_of_neighbours = {}
with open(path) as f:
for line in f:
if line.split()[0] not in dict_of_neighbours:
_list = list()
_list.append([line.split()[1], line.split()[2]])
dict_of_neighbours[line.split()[0]] = _list
else:
dict_of_neighbours[line.split()[0]].append(
[line.split()[1], line.split()[2]]
)
if line.split()[1] not in dict_of_neighbours:
_list = list()
_list.append([line.split()[0], line.split()[2]])
dict_of_neighbours[line.split()[1]] = _list
else:
dict_of_neighbours[line.split()[1]].append(
[line.split()[0], line.split()[2]]
)
return dict_of_neighbours
def generate_first_solution(path, dict_of_neighbours):
"""
Pure implementation of generating the first solution for the Tabu search to start, with the redundant resolution
strategy. That means that we start from the starting node (e.g. node 'a'), then we go to the city nearest (lowest
distance) to this node (let's assume is node 'c'), then we go to the nearest city of the node 'c', etc
till we have visited all cities and return to the starting node.
:param path: The path to the .txt file that includes the graph (e.g.tabudata2.txt)
:param dict_of_neighbours: Dictionary with key each node and value a list of lists with the neighbors of the node
and the cost (distance) for each neighbor.
:return first_solution: The solution for the first iteration of Tabu search using the redundant resolution strategy
in a list.
:return distance_of_first_solution: The total distance that Travelling Salesman will travel, if he follows the path
in first_solution.
"""
with open(path) as f:
start_node = f.read(1)
end_node = start_node
first_solution = []
visiting = start_node
distance_of_first_solution = 0
while visiting not in first_solution:
minim = 10000
for k in dict_of_neighbours[visiting]:
if int(k[1]) < int(minim) and k[0] not in first_solution:
minim = k[1]
best_node = k[0]
first_solution.append(visiting)
distance_of_first_solution = distance_of_first_solution + int(minim)
visiting = best_node
first_solution.append(end_node)
position = 0
for k in dict_of_neighbours[first_solution[-2]]:
if k[0] == start_node:
break
position += 1
distance_of_first_solution = (
distance_of_first_solution
+ int(dict_of_neighbours[first_solution[-2]][position][1])
- 10000
)
return first_solution, distance_of_first_solution
def find_neighborhood(solution, dict_of_neighbours):
"""
Pure implementation of generating the neighborhood (sorted by total distance of each solution from
lowest to highest) of a solution with 1-1 exchange method, that means we exchange each node in a solution with each
other node and generating a number of solution named neighborhood.
:param solution: The solution in which we want to find the neighborhood.
:param dict_of_neighbours: Dictionary with key each node and value a list of lists with the neighbors of the node
and the cost (distance) for each neighbor.
:return neighborhood_of_solution: A list that includes the solutions and the total distance of each solution
(in form of list) that are produced with 1-1 exchange from the solution that the method took as an input
Example:
>>) find_neighborhood(['a','c','b','d','e','a'])
[['a','e','b','d','c','a',90], [['a','c','d','b','e','a',90],['a','d','b','c','e','a',93],
['a','c','b','e','d','a',102], ['a','c','e','d','b','a',113], ['a','b','c','d','e','a',93]]
"""
neighborhood_of_solution = []
for n in solution[1:-1]:
idx1 = solution.index(n)
for kn in solution[1:-1]:
idx2 = solution.index(kn)
if n == kn:
continue
_tmp = copy.deepcopy(solution)
_tmp[idx1] = kn
_tmp[idx2] = n
distance = 0
for k in _tmp[:-1]:
next_node = _tmp[_tmp.index(k) + 1]
for i in dict_of_neighbours[k]:
if i[0] == next_node:
distance = distance + int(i[1])
_tmp.append(distance)
if _tmp not in neighborhood_of_solution:
neighborhood_of_solution.append(_tmp)
indexOfLastItemInTheList = len(neighborhood_of_solution[0]) - 1
neighborhood_of_solution.sort(key=lambda x: x[indexOfLastItemInTheList])
return neighborhood_of_solution
def tabu_search(
first_solution, distance_of_first_solution, dict_of_neighbours, iters, size
):
"""
Pure implementation of Tabu search algorithm for a Travelling Salesman Problem in Python.
:param first_solution: The solution for the first iteration of Tabu search using the redundant resolution strategy
in a list.
:param distance_of_first_solution: The total distance that Travelling Salesman will travel, if he follows the path
in first_solution.
:param dict_of_neighbours: Dictionary with key each node and value a list of lists with the neighbors of the node
and the cost (distance) for each neighbor.
:param iters: The number of iterations that Tabu search will execute.
:param size: The size of Tabu List.
:return best_solution_ever: The solution with the lowest distance that occurred during the execution of Tabu search.
:return best_cost: The total distance that Travelling Salesman will travel, if he follows the path in best_solution
ever.
"""
count = 1
solution = first_solution
tabu_list = list()
best_cost = distance_of_first_solution
best_solution_ever = solution
while count <= iters:
neighborhood = find_neighborhood(solution, dict_of_neighbours)
index_of_best_solution = 0
best_solution = neighborhood[index_of_best_solution]
best_cost_index = len(best_solution) - 1
found = False
while found is False:
i = 0
while i < len(best_solution):
if best_solution[i] != solution[i]:
first_exchange_node = best_solution[i]
second_exchange_node = solution[i]
break
i = i + 1
if [first_exchange_node, second_exchange_node] not in tabu_list and [
second_exchange_node,
first_exchange_node,
] not in tabu_list:
tabu_list.append([first_exchange_node, second_exchange_node])
found = True
solution = best_solution[:-1]
cost = neighborhood[index_of_best_solution][best_cost_index]
if cost < best_cost:
best_cost = cost
best_solution_ever = solution
else:
index_of_best_solution = index_of_best_solution + 1
best_solution = neighborhood[index_of_best_solution]
if len(tabu_list) >= size:
tabu_list.pop(0)
count = count + 1
return best_solution_ever, best_cost
def main(args=None):
dict_of_neighbours = generate_neighbours(args.File)
first_solution, distance_of_first_solution = generate_first_solution(
args.File, dict_of_neighbours
)
best_sol, best_cost = tabu_search(
first_solution,
distance_of_first_solution,
dict_of_neighbours,
args.Iterations,
args.Size,
)
print(f"Best solution: {best_sol}, with total distance: {best_cost}.")
if __name__ == "__main__":
parser = argparse.ArgumentParser(description="Tabu Search")
parser.add_argument(
"-f",
"--File",
type=str,
help="Path to the file containing the data",
required=True,
)
parser.add_argument(
"-i",
"--Iterations",
type=int,
help="How many iterations the algorithm should perform",
required=True,
)
parser.add_argument(
"-s", "--Size", type=int, help="Size of the tabu list", required=True
)
# Pass the arguments to main method
main(parser.parse_args())
```