Insertion sort is a simple sorting algorithm that builds the final sorted array (or list) one item at a time. However, insertion sort provides several advantages: Simple implementation: Jon Bentley shows a three-line c version, and a five-line optimized version Efficient for (quite) small data sets, much like other quadratic sorting algorithmsAdaptive, i.e., efficient for data sets that are already substantially sorted: the time complexity is O(kn) when each component in the input is no more than K places away from its sorted position Stable; i.e., makes not change the relative order of components with equal keys

To perform an insertion sort, begin at the left-most component of the array and invoke insert to insert each component encountered into its correct position. It operates by beginning at the end of the sequence and shifting each component one place to the right until a suitable position is found for the new component.

```
"""
This is a pure Python implementation of the insertion sort algorithm
For doctests run following command:
python -m doctest -v insertion_sort.py
or
python3 -m doctest -v insertion_sort.py
For manual testing run:
python insertion_sort.py
"""
def insertion_sort(collection):
"""Pure implementation of the insertion sort algorithm in Python
:param collection: some mutable ordered collection with heterogeneous
comparable items inside
:return: the same collection ordered by ascending
Examples:
>>> insertion_sort([0, 5, 3, 2, 2])
[0, 2, 2, 3, 5]
>>> insertion_sort([])
[]
>>> insertion_sort([-2, -5, -45])
[-45, -5, -2]
"""
for loop_index in range(1, len(collection)):
insertion_index = loop_index
while (
insertion_index > 0
and collection[insertion_index - 1] > collection[insertion_index]
):
collection[insertion_index], collection[insertion_index - 1] = (
collection[insertion_index - 1],
collection[insertion_index],
)
insertion_index -= 1
return collection
if __name__ == "__main__":
user_input = input("Enter numbers separated by a comma:\n").strip()
unsorted = [int(item) for item in user_input.split(",")]
print(insertion_sort(unsorted))
```